Name of the medicinal product
domperidone 10mg Tablets
Qualitative and quantitative composition
Each tablet contains Domperidone maleate equivalent to 10mg domperidone base.
Domperidone 10mg Tablet is presented as a white round biconvex tablet with “Dm 10” inscription on one side.
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Domepridone is indicated for the relief of the symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Domeperidone should be used at the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control nausea and vomiting.
Domperidone 10mg Tablets are for oral administration.
It is recommended to take oral domperidone tablets before meals. If taken after meals, absorption of the drug is somewhat delayed.
Patients should try to take each dose at scheduled time. If a scheduled dose is missed, the missed dose should be omitted and the usual dosing schedule resumed. The dose should not be doubled to make up for a missed dose.
Usually, the maximum treatment duration should not exceed one week.
Adults and adolescents (12 years of age and older and weighing 35 kg or more)
One 10mg tablet up to three times per day with maximum dose of 30 mg per day.
Neonates, infants, children (less than 12 years of age) and adolescents weighing less than 35 kg Due to the need for accurate dosing, Domperidone tablets are unsuitable for use in children and adolescents weighing less than 35 kg.
Domperidone is contraindicated in moderate or severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.3). Dose modification in mild hepatic impairment is however not needed (see section 5.2).
Since the elimination half-life of domperidone is prolonged in severe renal impairment, on repeated administration, the dosing frequency of Domperidone tablets should be reduced to once or twice daily depending on the severity of the impairment, and the dose may need to be reduced. Such patients on prolonged therapy should be reviewed regularly (see sections 4.4 and 5.2)
Domperidone is contraindicated in the following situations:
- In patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).
- In patients who have known existing prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc, patients with significant electrolyte disturbances or underlying cardiac diseases such as congestive heart failure (see section 4.4)
- Co-administration with QT-prolonging drugs (see section 4.5).
- Co-administration with potent CY3A4 inhibitors (regardless of their QT prolonging effects) (see section 4.5)
- Known hypersensitivity to domperidone or any of the excipients.
- Prolactin-releasing pituitary tumour (prolactinoma.)
- Renal impairment
Domperidone should not be used when stimulation of gastric motility could be harmful: gastro-intestinal haemorrhage, mechanical obstruction or perforation.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Precautions for use
Domperidone tablets contain lactose and may be unsuitable for patients with lactose intolerance, galactosaemia or glucose/galactose malabsorption.
Use in infants
Neurological side effects are rare (see “Undesirable effects” section). Since metabolic functions and the blood-brain barrier are not fully developed in the first months of life the risk of neurological side effects is higher in young children.
Overdosing may cause extrapyramidal symptoms in children, but other causes should be taken into consideration.
The elimination half-life of domperidone is prolonged in severe renal impairment. For repeated administration, the dosing frequency of domperidone should be reduced to once or twice daily depending on the severity of the impairment. The dose may also need to be reduced.
Domperidone has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. During post-marketing surveillance, there have been very rare cases of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes in patients taking domperidone. These reports included patients with confounding risk factors, electrolyte abnormalities and concomitant treatment which may have been contributing factors (see section 4.8).
Epidemiological studies showed that domperidone was associated with an increased risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death (see section 4.8). A higher risk was observed in patients older than 60 years, patients taking daily doses greater than 30 mg, and patients concurrently taking QT-prolonging drugs or CYP3A4 inhibitors.
Domperidone should be used at the lowest effective dose in adults and children. Domperidone is contraindicated in patients with known existing prolongation of cardiac conduction intervals, particularly QTc, in patients with significant electrolyte disturbances (hypokalaemia, hyperkalaemia, hypomagnesaemia), or bradycardia, or in patient with underlying cardiac diseases such as congestive heart failure due to increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia (see section 4.3). Electrolyte disturbances (hypokalaemia, hyperkalaemia, hypomagnesaemia) or bradycardia are known to be conditions increasing the proarrythmic risk.
Treatment with domperidone should be stopped if signs or symptoms occur that may be associated with cardiac arrhythmia, and the patient should consult their physician.
Patient should be advised to promptly report any cardiac symptoms.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
The main metabolic pathway of domperidone is through CYP3A4. In vitro data suggest that the concomitant use of drugs that significantly inhibit this enzyme may result in increased plasma levels of domperidone.
Increased risk of occurrence of QT-interval prolongation, due to pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions.
Concomitant use of the following substances is contraindicated
QTc-prolonging medicinal products
- anti-arrhythmics class IA (e.g., disopyramide, hydroquinidine, quinidine)
- anti-arrhythmics class III (e.g., amiodarone, dofetilide, dronedarone, ibutilide, sotalol)
- certain antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, pimozide, sertindole)
- certain antidepressants (e.g., citalopram, escitalopram)
- certain antibiotics (e.g. , erythromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, spiramycin)
- certain antifungal agents (e.g., pentamidine)
- certain antimalarial agents (in particular halofantrine, lumefantrine)
- certain gastro-intestinal medicines (e.g., cisapride, dolasetron, prucalopride)
- certain antihistaminics (e.g., mequitazine, mizolastine)
- certain medicines used in cancer (e.g., toremifene, vandetanib, vincamine)
- certain other medicines (e.g., bepridil, diphemanil, methadone) (see section 4.3).
Potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (regardless of their QT prolonging effects), i.e :
- protease inhibitors
- systemic azole antifungals
- some macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin and telithromycin) (see section 4.3).
Concomitant use of the following substances is not recommended
Moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors i.e. diltiazem, verapamil and some macrolides. (see section 4.3)
Concomitant use of the following substances requires caution in use
Caution with bradycardia and hypokalaemia-inducing drugs, as well as with the following macrolides involved in QT-interval prolongation: azithromycin and roxithromycin (clarithromycin is contraindicated as it is a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor).
The above list of substances is representative and not exhaustive.
Separate in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interaction studies with oral ketoconazole or oral erythromycin in healthy subjects confirmed a marked inhibition of domperidone’s CYP3A4 mediated first pass metabolism by these drugs.
With the combination of oral domperidone 10mg four times daily and ketoconazole 200mg twice daily, a mean QTc prolongation of 9.8 msec was seen over the observation period, with changes at individual time points ranging from 1.2 to 17.5 msec. With the combination of domperidone 10mg four times daily and oral erythromycin 500mg three times daily, mean QTc over the observation period was prolonged by 9.9 msec, with changes at individual time points ranging from 1.6 to 14.3 msec. Both the Cmax and AUC of domperidone at steady state were increased approximately three-fold in each of these interaction studies. In these studies domperidone monotherapy at 10mg given orally four times daily resulted in increases in mean QTc of 1.6 msec (ketoconazole study) and 2.5 msec (erythromycin study), while Ketoconazole monotherapy (200mg twice daily) led to increases in QTc of 3.8 and 4.9 msec, respectively, over the observation period.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
There are limited post-marketing data on the use of domperidone in pregnant women. A study in rats has shown reproductive toxicity at a high, maternally toxic dose. The potential risk for humans is unknown. Therefore, domperidone should only be used during pregnancy when justified by the anticipated therapeutic benefit.
Domperidone is excreted in human milk and breast-fed infants receive less than 0.1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. Occurrence of adverse effects, in particular cardiac effects cannot be excluded after exposure via breast milk. A decision should be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from domperidone therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the women. Caution should be exercised in case of QTc prolongation risk factor in breast-fed infants.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Domperidone has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive or use machines.
4.8 Undesirable effects
The following frequencies are used for the description of the occurrence of adverse reactions:
Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000), unknown (cannot be estimated from the available data).
- Loss of libido
- Breast pain
- Breast tenderness
Overdose has been reported primarily in infants and children. Symptoms of overdosage may include agitation, altered consciousness, convulsions, disorientation, somnolence and extrapyramidal reactions.
There is no specific antidote to domperidone, but in the event of overdose, standard symptomatic treatment should be given immediately. Gastric lavage as well as the administration of activated charcoal may be useful. ECG monitoring should be undertaken, because of the possibility of QT interval prolongation. Close medical supervision and supportive therapy is recommended.
Anticholinergic, anti-parkinson drugs may be helpful in controlling the extrapyramidal reactions.
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Propulsives, ATC code: A03F A03
Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with anti-emetic properties domperidone does not readily cross the bloodbrain barrier. In domperidone users, especially in adults, extrapyramidal side effects are very rare, but domperidone promotes the release of prolactin from the pituitary. Its anti- emetic effect may be due to a combination of peripheral (gastrokinetic) effects and antagonism of dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone, which lies outside the blood-brain barrier in the area postrema. Animal studies, together with the low concentrations found in the brain, indicate a predominantly peripheral effect of domperidone on dopamine receptors. Studies in man have shown oral domperidone to increase lower oesophageal pressure, improve antroduodenal motility and accelerate gastric emptying. There is no effect on gastric secretion.
In accordance with ICH-E14 guidelines, a thorough QT study was performed. This study included a placebo, an active comparator and a positive control and was conducted in healthy subjects with up to 80 mg per day 10 or 20 mg administered 4 times a day of domperidone. This study found a maximal difference of QTc between domperidone and placebo in LS-means in the change from baseline_of 3.4 msec for 20 mg domperidone administered 4 times a day on Day 4. The 2-sided 90% CI (1.0 to 5.9 msec) did not exceed 10 msec. No clinically relevant QTc effect were observed in this study when domperidone was administered at up to 80 mg/day (i.e., more than twice the maximum recommended dosing).
However, two previous drug-drug interaction studies showed some evidence of QTc prolongation when domperidone was administered as monotherapy (10 mg 4 times a day). The largest time-matched mean difference of QTcF between domperidone and placebo was 5.4 msec (95 % CI: -1.7 to 12.4) and 7.5msec (95 % CI: 0.6 to 14.4), respectively.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Domperidone is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with peak plasma concentrations occurring at approximately 1 hr after dosing.. The Cmax and AUC values of domperidone increased proportionally with dose in the 10 mg to 20 mg dose range. A 2- to 3-fold accumulation of domperidone AUC was observed with repeated four times daily (every 5 hr) dosing of domperidone for 4 days.
The low absolute bioavailability of oral domperidone (approximately 15%) is due to an extensive first-pass metabolism in the gut wall and liver. Although domperidone’s bioavailability is enhanced in normal subjects when taken after a meal, patients with gastrointestinal complaints should take domperidone 15-30 minutes before a meal. Reduced gastric acidity impairs the absorption of domperidone. Oral bioavailability is decreased by prior concomitant administration of cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate. The time of peak absorption is slightly delayed and the AUC somewhat increased when the oral drug is taken after a meal.
Oral domperidone does not appear to accumulate or induce its own metabolism; a peak plasma level after 90 minutes of 21ng/ml after two weeks oral administration of 30 mg per day was almost the same as that of 18 ng/ml after the first dose. Domperidone is 91-93% bound to plasma proteins. Distribution studies with radiolabelled drug in animals have shown wide tissue distribution, but low brain concentration. Small amounts of drug crossed the placenta in rats.
Domperidone undergoes rapid and extensive hepatic metabolism by hydroxylation and N-dealkylation. In vitro metabolism experiments with diagnostic inhibitors revealed that CYP3A4 is a major form of cytochrome P- 450 involved in the N-dealkylation of domperidone, whereas CYP3A4, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 are involved in domperidone aromatic hydroxylation.
Urinary and faecal excretions amount to 31 and 66% of the oral dose respectively, The proportion of the drug excreted unchanged is small (10% of faecal excretion and approximately 1% of urinary excretion). The plasma half-life after a single oral dose is 7-9 hours in healthy subjects but is prolonged in patients with severe renal insufficiency.
In subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Pugh score 7 to 9, Child-Pugh rating B), the AUC and Cmax of domperidone is 2.9- and 1.5- fold higher, respectively, than in healthy subjects.
The unbound fraction is increased by 25%, and the terminal elimination half- life is prolonged from 15 to 23 hours. Subjects with mild hepatic impairment have a somewhat lower systemic exposure than healthy subjects based on Cmax and AUC, with no change in protein binding or terminal half-life. Subjects with severe hepatic impairment were not studied. Domperidone is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.3).
In subjects with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance<30 ml/min/1.73m2) the elimination half-life of domperidone was increased from 7.4 to 20.8 hours, but plasma drug levels were lower than in healthy volunteers.
Since very little unchanged drug (approximately 1%) is excreted via the kidneys, it is unlikely that the dose of a single administration needs to be adjusted in patients with renal insufficiency.
However, on repeated administration, the dosing frequency should be reduced to once or twice daily depending on severity of the impairment, and the dose may need to be reduced.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Electrophysiological in vitro and in vivo studies indicate an overall moderate risk of domperidone to prolong the QT interval in humans. In in vitro experiments on isolated cells transfected with hERG and on isolated guinea pig myocytes exposure ratios ranged between 26 – 47-fold, based on IC50 values inhibiting currents through IKr ion channels in comparison to the free plasma concentrations in humans after administration of the maximum daily dose of 10 mg administered 3 times a day. safety margins for prolongation of action potential duration in in vitro experiments on isolated cardiac tissues exceeded the free plasma concentrations in humans at maximum daily dose (10 mg administered 3 times a day) by 45-fold.
Safety margins in in vitro proarrhythmic models (isolated Langendorff perfused heart) exceeded the free plasma concentrations in humans at maximum daily dose (10 mg administered 3 times a day) by 9- up to 45-fold. In in vivo models the no effect levels for QTc prolongation in dogs and induction of arrhythmias in a rabbit model sensitized for torsade de pointes exceeded the free plasma concentrations in humans at maximum daily dose (10 mg administered 3 times a day) by more than 22-fold and 435-fold, respectively. In the anesthetized guinea pig model following slow intravenous infusions, there were no effects on QTc at total plasma concentrations of 45.4ng/ml, which are 3-fold higher than the total plasma levels in humans at maximum daily dose (10 mg administered 3 times a day). The relevance of the latter study for humans following exposure to rally administered domperidone is uncertain.
In the presence of inhibition of the metabolism via CYP3A4 free plasma concentrations of domperidone can rise up to 3- fold.
At a high, maternally toxic dose (more than 40 times the recommended human dose), teratogenic effects were seen in the rat. No teratogenicity was observed in mice and rabbits.
6.1 List of excipients
- Microcrystalline cellulose
- Lactose monohydrate
- Maize starch
- Povidone K30
- Sodium lauryl sulphate
- Silica colloidal, anhydrous
- Magnesium stearate
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C. Store in the original package.
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